Vol 5-2 Review Article

Potential Therapeutic Effects of Passive Limb Movement in Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) lead to significant changes in autonomic function, hemodynamics, and body composition. These structural and functional alterations are closely associated with the development of cardiovascular pathologies and other metabolic diseases. Recent clinical studies suggest that passive limb movement (PLM) has beneficial effects on cardiovascular function and skeletal muscle health, which has drawn a growing interest for the use of PLM as a therapeutic option for patients with SCI. However, there is a lack of mechanistic studies that examine the underlying mechanisms of how PLM may ameliorate cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function in patients with SCIs. In this review, we will discuss potential mechanisms of SCI-induced perturbations in autonomic function, hemodynamics, and body composition. Furthermore, we will highlight the therapeutic effects of PLM on autonomic function, vascular structure and function, and skeletal muscle in patients with SCIs. Additionally, we will also introduce the effects of other passive therapeutic interventions such as vibration and massage therapy with potential benefits and concerns for cardiovascular and skeletal muscle adaptations in SCI. Therefore, optimizing the application of PLM in patients with SCIs may be useful to salvage SCI-induced attenuations in vascular function and body composition.

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5122/2024/2.1139 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-2 Original Research Article

Highly Educated Black Americans Report Higher than Expected Perceived Job Demands

Background: Educational attainment has well established and widely recognized the effects on employment conditions and job demands. However, the way in which educational attainment correlates with perceived job demands may be inconsistent across racial groups as suggested by Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDRs). The aim was to test the moderating effect of race on the association between educational attainment and perceived job demands, particularly for Black and White individuals.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of MIDUS Refresher 1, including 1,232 Black and White adults over the age of 25 in the United States. Education attainment was the independent variable and perceived job demands was the dependent variable covariates. Linear regression was used for multivariate models.

Results- We observed positive association between education and perceived job demands, however, statistical interaction between race and education suggested stronger positive associations for Black than White individuals.

Conclusion: Being a highly educated Black professional in the United States equals high demand such increase stress is a risk factor of being a middle class black American. Innovated and bold market policies are required to solve this unfair dilemma.

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5122/2024/2.1138 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-2 Original Research Article

Psychoanalytic and Sociobiological Factors in Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities: Discussion Focused on Rehabilitation Counseling Profession

This study's goal was to examine, expand upon, and update a chapter that was first printed in a relatively small number of copies of the book titled Essays and Research on Disability1.  Thomas was the sole author of the original chapter, which discussed how attitudes about disability develop from a psychoanalytic and sociobiological perspective.  Kin, reciprocal, and induced altruism were the first three altruism principles in sociobiology that were covered in this study. Then, Karen Horney's neo-Freudian viewpoint (i.e., less emphasis on sex and focused more on the social environment and culture regarding personality development) and traditional Freudian theories (such as castration anxiety, loss of love, and loss of the object) were tied to sociobiology, and this relationship was further addressed in terms of the evolution of attitude toward handicap. Then, recommendations were offered across a broad range of rehabilitation counseling services and educational practices that might be improved by using these insights, both clinically and politically.  Finally, the present study extends this discussion by addressing similar concerns in the areas of counseling service priorities, multicultural rehabilitation counseling, and identity politics.

DOI: 10.29245/2767-5122/2023/2.1135 View / Download Pdf